Sperm counts worldwide have decreased by more than 50 percent and some fertility experts claim there is an epidemic of infertility. The phenomenon, however, is occurring most significantly in developed nations compared to the developing world. Although still controversial, associations with sperm-count decline and exposures to complex chemicals i. Results indicated that sperm counts declined significantly over the approximately year span.
ROE Indicators Importance of Trends in Human Disease and Condition Numerous human diseases and conditions have been linked with exposures to environmental contaminants, some more strongly than others. Identifying diseases that might be associated with environmental contaminants, and determining the existing data sources available for them, is a key part of the effort to better characterize links between environmental exposures and adverse health outcomes.
Tracking overall rates of disease in the United States, independent of exposure, enables the evaluation of disease patterns and emerging trends.
It may identify diseases, conditions, and possible risk factors that warrant further study or intervention and can help identify where policies or interventions have been successful. Because the United States has a diverse population, an important component of such an analysis is identifying disparities among people of differing races and ethnicities, genders, education and income levels, and geographic locations.
Both measures provide useful insights about trends in disease; however, both are influenced by a number of factors, including the accuracy of reporting mechanisms and issues related to access to, quality of, and advances in medical care.
Both morbidity and mortality can be measured using occurrences or rates: Occurrences represent frequency counts. Rates enable a comparison across populations. Rates are ratios that calculate the frequency of cases of disease, condition, outcome divided by the size of the defined population for a specified time period.
Usually some constant generally a multiplier of the power 10 is applied to convert the rate to a whole number. Morbidity data are often used to describe the incidence and prevalence of a disease or condition.
Both incidence and prevalence are often expressed as a rate per 1, persons over a particular time period: Incidence refers to the number of new cases of a disease or condition in a population during a specified time period. Prevalence refers to the total number of people with a given disease or condition in a population at a specified point in time.
Mortality is generally expressed as a rate and is defined as the proportion of the population who die of a disease or condition during a specified time period. The rate is usually calculated for a calendar year and is often expressed perpersons.
In general, disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality increase with age. For this reason, when comparing different populations, the data must be adjusted to account for the age differences between the populations. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates and calculated using standard population factors.
In the ROE, the U. Top of Page ROE Indicators The ROE presents nine indicators of health outcomes for which environmental exposures may be a risk factor and for which nationally representative data are available: All indicators are based on vital statistics and surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute.
The health outcomes covered by the ROE human disease and condition indicators fall into five broad categories: Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States General Mortality indicator.
More than one in three people will develop cancer and nearly one in four will die of it. Some environmental contaminant exposures are known risk factors for certain types of cancers. Examples include radon and lung cancer and arsenic and skin cancer.
Though many types of cancer are suspected of being related to ambient environmental exposures, associations are not always clear because the etiology of cancer is complex and influenced by a wide range of factors. Many factors can increase individual cancer risk, such as age, genetics, existence of infectious diseases, and socioeconomic factors that can affect exposure and susceptibility.
Childhood cancers are dissimilar from cancers in adults and are therefore tracked separately. They affect different anatomic sites and may be of embryonic origin.
Though overall cancer incidence rates are lower in children than in adults, childhood cancers are the leading cause of disease-related death in children age 1 to 19 years. Environmental exposures are difficult to evaluate because cancer is rare in children and because of challenges in identifying past exposure levels, particularly during potentially important time periods such as in utero or maternal exposures prior to conception.The risk index will have a higher number for those food elements which are the most vulnerable to get adulterated or the foods that are contaminated with multiple types of .
After a year of lactation, the levels of a number of environmental contaminants in breast milk drop by 15 -- 94 per cent, according to a recent study from the Norwegian Institute of .
After a year of lactation, the levels of a number of environmental contaminants in breast milk drop by 15 – 94 per cent, according to a recent study from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
PFCs: Global Contaminants: PFC Health Concerns. Industry’s most recent study shows organ weight changes — often a gross sign of toxicity and damage to organ function — among lab animals exposed to PFOA in the womb and into early adulthood.
EPA’s new findings of high risk to humans. New Study Shows Passive Cigarette Smoke At Least Doubles Risk Of Cancer In Cats Date: July 30, cats are exposed to many of the same environmental contaminants as their owners, including. New Study Shows Passive Cigarette Smoke At Least Doubles Risk Of Cancer In Cats Date: July 30, Source: Tufts University Summary: Cats living in homes where people smoke cigarettes are more.