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Appendix 1 Summary This SIM provides guidance for inspectors on procedures and safe systems of work for opening aircraft doors, and for avoiding falls from aircraft doors when open.
The guidance does not apply to cargo and hold doors. Introduction 1 While the numbers of falls from height reported to HSE at airports has decreased significantly over recent years, there is a potential for serious injury if safe systems of work and standards are not maintained.
These include serious risks of injury if the emergency chute is accidentally activated, and falling from an unguarded door if there is no ground support equipment in place.
Safety features and proposed systems of work should be considered at the design stage to ensure that access equipment reduces the risk of falls so far as is reasonably practicable. General principles 7 Inspectors should be aware of existing industry guidance on opening aircraft doors: The IATA Airport Handling Manual 29th edition AHM recommends that cabin access doors, ie passenger entrance and service doors, shall be operated by specially trained and qualified staff either inside or outside the aircraft, as instructed by the carrier.
It also emphasises the importance of communication between cabin crew and ground staff and use of standard signals thumb-up signal and knocking at the door. Before removing GSE the Equipment operator must ensure that the door has been closed and secured by an authorised person, or that a clearly visible safety device has been placed across the opening.
If it is not possible to open the door with such a platform in place, further precautions as detailed in the guidance must be utilised.
While HSE is aiming for maximum protection for ground workers at airports, the airlines responsibility for cabin crew must also be considered, with consistent procedures to facilitate training.
We are looking for clear, consistent procedures, signals and communication which can be applied at all airports for each aircraft type, as far as this is possible. Such nets or restraint systems must be adequately tested and secured. Door straps on many aircraft are simply a warning device and are not fall protection systems.
Passenger access and egress Servicing the aircraft e. It is proposed that catering of the new Airbus A can be carried out via upper deck doors.
All passenger cabin doors may be used for emergency evacuation Cargo and hold doors are not included in this guidance 12 Some aircraft doors are automated or semi-automated which can reduce the risks of approaching an unguarded edge to open or close the door.
Steps or air bridges should be positioned outside the door before it is opened to provide some fall protection, even if guard rails cannot be fully positioned until the door is fully open. Procedures may also include a count down before opening the door.
As far as possible signals and procedures should be standardised to avoid confusion for cabin or ground crew. Both MUST be fully conversant with the signals or codes to be used. Doors should never be left unprotected once open.
Where doors are open and passengers are on board the aircraft it is particularly important that the doors are guarded either by a physical barrier or by a suitably trained crew member. Means of access 18 Passenger doors may be accessed via air bridges, mobile access steps or integral aircraft steps.
Other means of access includes service vehicles such as catering high loaders. Air bridges 19 Where an air bridge is used the risk of a fall is minimised. Once the bridge is positioned communication between cabin crew and ground handlers is paramount.
Signals must be clearly understood by all parties and there should be positive confirmation by a pre-agreed signal that the bridge is fully in position and the door can be opened. Door opening may be from inside or outside the aircraft but must be according to agreed procedures, to avoid any risk of accidental activation of the emergency chute.
There should also be a suitable procedure for the closing of the door and retraction of the air bridge. Access steps 20 These may be provided by the ground handler, the airport or the airline operator and should be designed to be compatible with the aircraft type, and to provide adequate protection from risk of falls.
Clear procedures and signals should be used to open the door.Ecological is relative with environment of industry that the company concern about the environment of their district. (Wheelen & Hunger, ) 3. Create a Strategic Group map of industry (but not the airline industry) using two broad characteristics- price and product-line.
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