The founder of the modern kingdom.
The terrorist attack has both direct and indirect impacts on foreign policy, power balances and interstate relations in the region.
The magnitude of the attacks served as an impetus for fundamental changes in the nature of US-Middle East foreign policy. More importantly, the terrorist attack brought to the fore the predominance of neo-conservatism, unilateralism, the promotion of preemptive intervention, and the inclusion of Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism in US policy.
It is important to note that the change of the foreign policy agenda and the upsurge of neo-conservative principles in foreign policy were the main causes of the invasion of Afghanistan, the invasion and occupation of Iraq, the push for regime changes in Syria and Iran, and the pressure on nations to openly show whether they are US allies or enemies Counterterrorism and the us foreign policy essay resolving the global challenges of the 21st century Salem Again, these fundamental changes led to a renewed call for democratization as a way of eliminating possible threats from terrorism and replace repressive states with democratic states with participatory political systems.
With regard to the promotion of preemptive intervention, it is important to note that US military involvement in the Middle East is not a recent development. US military forays in the region can be traced to the s when US Navy began escorting oil tankers passing through the Persian Gulf.
In the aftermath of the September 11, attacks on US oil, the government embarked on yet another full scale engagement to rid Iraq of weapons of mass destruction and overthrown the dictatorial regime of Saddam Hussein Salem ; Guinhong This foreign policy stance led to three specific consequences.
First, it demoted Iraq from being the most powerful state in the region to be a weak state controlled by occupying forces. Secondly, the fall of Saddam and his regime also created a domestic power vacuum which stimulated the sectarian and civil warfare alongside an attempt to democratize Iraq.
Unfortunately, this position of influence has reignited the age-old anti-colonial sentiments of anti-Americanism. Salem also reiterates that the paradigm shift in United States foreign policy in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks marked a historical rise in the strength of Salafist jihadists supported by Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network.
However, the strength of Islamic fundamentalism was dealt a great blow with the overthrow of the Taliban regime. The occupation of Afghanistan by allied forces has also served to put a cap on the development of jihadism. Thus, even though jihadism as promulgated by Al-Qaeda continues to exist, its operations have significantly moved from Afghanistan to Iraq, Middle East, Asia and Europe.
The Iraqi conflict has also indirectly led to the strengthening of Iran as a regional superpower Andrew With regard to interstate relations, the current foreign policy towards the Middle East has created a new balance.
With regard to policy towards Hamas, the Palestinian Authority, Gaza and West Bank; the United States foreign policy was objectively targeted towards ensuring that the flow of international aid and humanitarian goods is not negatively impacted Salem On the diplomatic side, the US instituted measures aimed at bridging the gaps in the Israeli-Hamas relationship and the stabilization of the security situation in Gaza and West Bank.
With respect to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the US policy still retains its preference for a two-state solution Pressman Pressman also adds that US policy towards the Palestinian Authority is based on their willingness to renounce terrorism and terrorist organizations within their jurisdiction, recognize that Israel has a right to exist, and accept that all past Israeli-Palestinian agreements are valid.
It had an impact on the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. It is only after US military involvement in Iraq that Israel too began to pursue relatively aggressive policies towards its neighbors.
For instance, in summerIsrael carried out an offensive against Lebanon to eliminate Hezbollah and against Gaza Strip to eliminate Hamas. Additionally, US policy influenced Turkish policy and its interest in winning European membership.
With the beginning of the Obama administration, there has been a slight change in the nature of policy towards the Middle East. On the contrary, some authors argue that the nature of US policy is in line with their objective of expanding capitalism and prerequisite capitalist institutions aimed at remolding the Middle East both economically, culturally, politically, and ideologically Joya Thus, the shift in American policy is simply a response to varying developments which threaten the imperialist intensions of the United States.
Conclusion US policy has largely revolved around economic liberalization, non proliferation of nuclear weapons, and political democratization. From the post Cold War era to the aftermath of the September 11, terrorist attacks, US policy towards the Middle East has maintained militarized policies to achieve broad economic, political, security, cultural, and ideological objectives.
There have been widespread changes in the global political system, but and remains critical turning points. Even though the structure of politics as determined by the concept of sovereignty and state independence remains unchanged, the US policy response to the September 11, has adopted a new assertive stance, but the basic drivers of policy changes still remain intact.
In a nutshell, there exists a remarkable continuity in the nature of US foreign policy. All the catalyzing events which act as the drivers for change are just manifestations of an evolving global political system.
Spring and SummerThe U. Turkish Journal of International Relations, Vol. FallSeptember 11,One Year On: A new Era in World Politics? Turkish Journal of International Relation, Vol.
S Policy Toward the Middle East; www. FallDilemmas of Democratization in the Middle East: DecemberA Fine Balance:External and offensive counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism, and some direct action is the general responsibility of Mossad, although military units will carry out specific counterterrorism actions.
Foreign Affairs — The leading magazine for analysis and debate of foreign policy, economics and global affairs. American foreign policy changed in the years as Americans realized that fascism would likely conquer all of Europe unless Americans acted quickly.
Ultimately, it was fear of the fascist threat to American democracy that triggered the end of American isolationism and inaugurated the era of American interventionism.
The War on Terrorism: Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy How should US policy against terrorism be evaluated 5 years 9/11? Five years later, despite modest success, the world is a more dangerous place not safer. The human cost (most importantly) as well as the economic costs can hardly be justified.
US foreign policymakers require a. Rethinking the Wars Against ISIS and the U.S. Strategy for Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Insurgency. September 28, By the time a new President takes office, the United States will have been at war for roughly a decade and a half. Today, nearly six years after that book’s publication, I can say that, to the extent that public officials have attempted to put terrorism into proper context, and calm public fears of it, they have not fixed our counterterrorism policy.