News million already live on less than a dollar a day. Indians are aware of the need for birth control, but too many remain ignorant of contraception methods or are unwilling to discuss them. Each state differs so widely in economic and social development that it is difficult to speak of the country as a whole. Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are three of the world's ten most polluted cities.
Siddur and Jewish liturgy Piyyut Classical Jewish poetry Many traditional Jewish texts are available online in various Torah databases electronic versions of the Traditional Jewish Bookshelf. Many of these have advanced search options available.
Jewish legal literature Main article: According to rabbinic tradition, there are commandments in the Torah. Some of these laws are directed only to men or to women, some only to the ancient priestly groups, the Kohanim and Leviyim members of the tribe of Levisome only to farmers within the Land of Israel.
Many laws were only applicable when the Temple in Jerusalem existed, and only of these commandments are still applicable today. These oral traditions were transmitted by the Pharisee school of thought of ancient Judaism and were later recorded in written form and expanded upon by the rabbis.
The Oral law is the oral tradition as relayed by God to Moses and from him, transmitted and taught to the sages rabbinic leaders of each subsequent generation. For centuries, the Torah appeared only as a written text transmitted in parallel with the oral tradition. Fearing that the oral teachings might be forgotten, Rabbi Judah haNasi undertook the mission of consolidating the various opinions into one body of law which became known as the Mishnah.
The commentaries from each of these communities were eventually compiled into the two Talmudsthe Jerusalem Talmud Talmud Yerushalmi and the Babylonian Talmud Talmud Bavli.
These have been further expounded by commentaries of various Torah scholars during the ages. In the text of the Torah, many words are left undefined and many procedures are mentioned without explanation or instructions.
Such phenomena are sometimes offered to validate the viewpoint that the Written Law has always been transmitted with a parallel oral tradition, illustrating the assumption that the reader is already familiar with the details from other, i.
The Halakha has developed slowly, through a precedent-based system. The literature of questions to rabbis, and their considered answers, is referred to as responsa in HebrewSheelot U-Teshuvot. Over time, as practices develop, codes of Jewish law are written that are based on the responsa; the most important code, the Shulchan Aruchlargely determines Orthodox religious practice today.
Jewish philosophy Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. Major changes occurred in response to the Enlightenment late 18th to early 19th century leading to the post-Enlightenment Jewish philosophers.
Modern Jewish philosophy consists of both Orthodox and non-Orthodox oriented philosophy. Soloveitchikand Yitzchok Hutner. Rabbinic hermeneutics 13 Principles of Hermeneutics: A law that operates under certain conditions will surely be operative in other situations where the same conditions are present in a more acute form A law operating in one situation will also be operative in another situation if the text characterizes both situations in identical terms.
A law that clearly expresses the purpose it was meant to serve will also apply to other situations where the identical purpose may be served. When a general rule is followed by illustrative particulars, only those particulars are to be embraced by it.
A law that begins with specifying particular cases, and then proceeds to an all-embracing generalization, is to be applied to particulars cases not specified but logically falling into the same generalization.
A law that begins with a generalization as to its intended applications, then continues with the specification of particular cases, and then concludes with a restatement of the generalization, can be applied only to the particular cases specified. The rules about a generalization being followed or preceded by specifying particulars rules 4 and 5 will not apply if it is apparent that the specification of the particular cases or the statement of the generalization is meant purely for achieving a greater clarity of language.
A particular case already covered in a generalization that is nevertheless treated separately suggests that the same particularized treatment be applied to all other cases which are covered in that generalization.
A penalty specified for a general category of wrongdoing is not to be automatically applied to a particular case that is withdrawn from the general rule to be specifically prohibited, but without any mention of the penalty. A general prohibition followed by a specified penalty may be followed by a particular case, normally included in the generalization, with a modification in the penalty, either toward easing it or making it more severe.
A case logically falling into a general law but treated separately remains outside the provisions of the general law except in those instances where it is specifically included in them.
Obscurities in Biblical texts may be cleared up from the immediate context or from subsequently occurring passages Contradictions in Biblical passages may be removed through the mediation of other passages.Published: Thu, 18 May Tikanga, coming from the Maori word tika which means true or correct, has a wide range of meanings – culture, custom, ethic, etiquette.
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