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More Fiji Documents Since gaining independence from Britain which colonized it sinceinFiji has had three constitutions — interspersed with periods of military or interim government rule.
The constitution instituted innegotiated with the British, did not vary much from the Colonial Constitution of This Constitution was a product of the decolonization process that characterized this decade as Britain sought to give colonies more independence. During the s Fijians were given a greater role in the administration of the island.
In a constitutional conference held in London sought to pave the way for Fijians to take control of their own government and negotiate a deal between the two major ethnic groups. The resulting document expanded the franchise, previously exercised only by Europeans and selected Indians and ethnic-Fijians who had up to that point been represented by chiefs.
Land rights guaranteed by the Deed of Cession were given constitutional protection. Fijian chiefs were given an effective veto in all important matters affecting the status of Fijians and in changes to the Constitution itself.
Voters were classified according to ethnicity: Fijian, Indian, or General, which included citizens of any non-Fijian, non-Indian ethnicity. Legislative representatives were elected from the Indo and Fijian rolls. The Constitution gave power to Fijian politicians so long as they remained in partnership with the general voters and, critically, so long as the Fijian vote remained unified.
Like the Constitution ofthe Independence Constitution had a bicameral legislature. The House of representative was elected by ethnic roll call and the Senate was appointed.
The House had a membership of With respect to the composition of the Senate, seven members were appointed by the Prime Minister, six by the leader of the opposition, eight by the Great Council of Chiefs a purely Fijian bodyand one by the Council of Rotuma.
The appointment procedure into the Senate meant that ethnic-Fijians would almost be guaranteed a majority. Constitutional crises Fiji faced its first constitutional crisis inwhen the Indo-Fijian dominated National Federation Party NFP narrowly won the parliamentary elections. Splits within the NFP and its hesitation to take office also exasperated the situation.
The two coups resulted from ethnic Fijian concerns that Indo-Fijians dominated the government. Lieutenant Colonel Sitiveni Rabuka led the two coups. The first coup, in Maydisposed the Timoci Bavadra led government.
The military coup caused the exodus of thousands of Indo-Fijians, who faced ethnic discrimination at the hand of the government.
In the interim government promulgated a new Constitution which sought to strengthen ethnic Fijian control of the country. Under this Constitution the positions of President and Prime Minister could only be filled by ethnic Fijians.
Thirty-seven of the seventy parliamentary seats could only be filled by ethnic Fijian. This meant that ethnic Fijians retained a majority of seats in parliament.
The constitution abolished all forms of non-racial voting. In Rabuka became Prime Minister under the Constitution. In Rabuka established the Constitutional Reviewed Commission. Led by George Speight, rebels took control of parliament on 19 May They held Chaudhry, other ministers, and staff hostage for fifty-six days.
President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara denounced the coup, but dismissed the government. Mara sought to take executive control for himself and declared a state of emergency. Like inthe rebels claimed fears of an Indo-Fijian dominated government.
On 29 May President Mara left office, questions remain as to whether he was deposed or resigned. The military led by Commodore Vorege Frank Bainimarama assumed control and abrogated the Constitution.
With the backing of the Great Council of Chiefs, the military installed an interim government headed by Laisenia Qarase. Ethnic Fijians dominated this new interim government.initiativeblog.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of initiativeblog.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
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Of the two new Basic Laws, only the Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation includes an entrenchment provision, and therefore, according to the constitutional consensus that prevailed at the time the new Basic Laws were enacted, only the Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation would have acquired the constitutional status allowing for judicial review.
The Constitution of the United States of America. On this site, constitutional experts interact with each other to explore the Constitution’s history and what it means today.
Introduction to Constitutional Litigation and Analysis A. Overview exception — is edit out the most or all of the facts and procedural history from the cases.
What Is Constitutional Law? The United States Constitution is fundamentally a set of arrangements. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.