Wind profilers Other synoptic data or weather instruments, including Earth Simulator which is used to model climate and weather conditions. In Africa, flood is one of the major concerns of farmers.
Louis Westerners often see the social components of agriculture in developing countries as constraints on development. However, the same social components play vital roles in facilitating cultivation. Of particular relevance to the future of genetically modified GM crops is the importance of the social component of indigenous management skill.
Along with the benefits that genetic modification has the potential to offer, it is important to keep in mind ways in which the technology may also disrupt this social component of agriculture.
Two possible forms of disruption are decreased recognizability and accelerated rate of technological change. Western scientists and development officials are often discomfited by the fact that farmers in the developing world rarely behave like the independent actors of neoclassical economics.
Instead, farmers appear to be enmeshed in a social fabric, and their decisions often seem unduly guided by social factors such as customs, obligations, and beliefs. It is not surprising that many outsiders regard this social fabric primarily as a constraint to progress—constraining diet white maize instead of yellow in Mexico; white rice instead of brown in Indiaeconomic development subsistence provisioning instead of cash croppingand ecological strategies slashing and burning instead of intensifying.
However, this social fabric also facilitates agriculture. Part of understanding constraints to biotechnology in developing countries requires recognizing agriculture as a system with social as well as economic and ecological components. The effects and fate of crop biotechnology in the developing world will depend not simply on agronomic performance, but on how new technologies are incorporated into such systems.
Particularly important is the social component in indigenous management skill. Skill is not simply objective information that exists sui generis; it is largely generated, maintained, and implemented socially. When seeds move between farmers and communities, information, expressed in locally meaningful concepts, moves along with them Richards, ; Sillitoe, Acts of cultivation under actual conditions are always imperfect experiments in which the farmer may not control rainfall, fluctuating pest populations, availability and quality of chemical and labor inputs, soil fertility, and other factors.
Agroecological processes are embedded in cultural concepts Thrupp, ; Brodt,and management skills may even be embedded in cultural institutions that individuals may not fully understand.
For example, Lansing documented Balinese rice farmers who traditionally followed a fallowing schedule set by water temple priests. Although the farmers did not realize it, the synchronized fallow included in the schedule deprived brown leafhoppers of habitat and thereby controlled their numbers.
When farmers abandoned this system in favor of multicropping of Green Revolution varieties, a pest explosion followed. For these reasons, farm management practices in the developing world rely heavily on the local social fabric that is often seen as a constraint, and it is questionable whether it is possible or even necessarily desirable to replace this function by government or corporations.
In the tightly bounded confines of a field trial, a new agricultural technology may be measured a success; however, for sustainability, any new technological thread must be woven into the social fabric—that is, made sensible by the farming community and integrated into local management practices.
The question then becomes what features of biotechnology pose special problems for the social process of developing management skill.Before posting, please read this section. Copyediting-L is not an editing service or business and does not employ anyone.
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Provide specific examples to support your argument. What laws, if any, may be violated by such practices? Discuss how current or potential employers might be able to use the information you found and possible steps that could be taken to help ensure your privacy.
In addition, this course is designed to be interdisciplinary, integrating the science with the business of biotechnology (i.e.
bringing biotech products to market), the laws and policies regulating this industry, and the ethics of performing bioscience research.
A comprehensive overview of the new business context for biopharma companies, featuring numerous case studies and state-of-the-art marketing models.
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Lankes [ 15 ] discusses the digital reference research agenda, stating that one of the central questions in digital reference is “how human expertise can be incorporated effectively and efficiently into.
Jürgen Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action () and Herbert Schiller’s Communication and Cultural Domination () were able to answer questions on the digital divide, the information rich and the information poor, and media imperialism.